Biomedical waste Segregation For better biomedical waste management in hospitals, segregation of waste plays a predominant role. Mainly to reduce the volume of infectious waste it is most important, otherwise the quantum of general waste will go beyond the control of disposal finally. As estimated in by researcher and rules the conclusions are as follows.
1. The Biomedical waste should not be mixed with other waste. The color coded segregation system should be placed in the point of generation and BMW should be segregate at the point of generation. The BMW has been divided in to 10 different categories. So that the transportation can be done safely to the disposal point and disposed with minimum energy cost. The reports and studies shows that 85 to 90% waste generated by the hospitals are non infected in nature rest are infected. Means contaminated by body fluid or blood. Hospital generates mainly three types of waste.1.Infected,2.Non-infected, 3.Biodegradable in nature.If the segregation system is good and proper most of the waste can be reused by the recycle industries.
2. BMW is divided into 9 categories and disposal system has been divided as per the status of waste. a. Category one:- Human anatomical waste…………disposal:……..Incineration/Deep burial
b. Category two:-Animal waste. Body part of animal used in research or pathological test. Disposal:……..Incineration/Deep Burial.
c. Microbiological or Biotechnological waste, Cat 3 Waste like culture stocks, Waste from laboratories or specimen/ Autoclaving Microwaving.
d. Waste Sharps: – cat 4 Needles, syringes, Scalpels, blades, glass Autoclaving. Use needle burners and shredders.
e. Discarded Medicines and cytotoxic drugs:-cat 5 Destruction of drugs and incineration.
f. Soiled waste: -Cat 6 Means Item contaminated with Blood or body fluids including cotton but other than sharp waste such as tubing catheters intravenous sets Blood transfusion sets blood bags/Autoclaving followed but shredding.
g. Solid waste cat.7 generated from disposable items other than sharp waste should be disposed after doing chemical treatment.
h. Liquid waste: -Cat 8 Generated from Laboratories, Wash basin, Ex Ray unit liquid waste cleaning disinfection by doing chemical by 1% sodium hypochlorite solution. Floor cleaning should be done by the some reagent. Phenol should be discarded from the waste management system. Because that is a derivatives of benzene which cannot be dissolved in to water. Ultimately it will contaminate the ground surface water .Then through roots of plants in turns it will come to contaminate our food chain.
i. Incineration Ash Cat 9. Secured land fill in municipal land. It should be handling with great care because it is the source of Dioxin which is carcinogenic accepted by the global forum. Incineration technology emits Dioxin and till 2003 there was no Indian laboratories tested dioxin till then permissible limits in the air was not known. Another ignoring segment in health care industries is to segregate the MERCURY from the biomedical waste or municipal waste. Now incineration is a restricted used technology.
j. Biomedical waste should be segregated in colored coded paddle operated covered bins. Proper training should be given to the paramedical staff and waste handlers about the waste and how to match with colors. Practice should be made to segregate the bio medical waste at the point of generation. Infectious, Noninfectious, Biodegradable and recycle able waste are common. In the container prescribed label should be given.
k. Notwithstanding anything contained in the Motor Vehicles Act, 1998 or rules hereunder, Untreated BMW should be transport in such vehicle as may be authorized for the purpose by the competent authority as specified by the government.
l. No untreated biomedical waste should be kept beyond 48 hours in temporary segregation area. This area should be constructing in a corner of the hospital away from words and the visitor’s area. Best possible protection materials should be provided to the handlers for their safety and control infection and outside the hospital.
Time to time immunization to be given to the hospital staff especially to the waste handlers. Record keeping of waste category wise and day/date wise is mandatory during submission of annual report to state pollution control body. This practice helps to upgrade the system and to evaluate the performances of the staff. Waste management committee should be formed and the body should function actively. Medical superintendent should be chairperson and nursing superintendent should actively support him to function effectively. In fact NS will run the system with every staffs. Monitoring of functioning of the staffs is most important part of the system. To monitor further the activities of Waste management and effectiveness of the performances of the staffs Infection control committee to be setup. Based on their report the slandered of the safety of the hospital may be able to be judge. One should not ignore the safety of the visitors of the patients of the hospital. The BMW rules were setup in 1998 and time to time it was amended as per the need of the situation. The latest amendment was on 24 August 2011 and in 22nd November there was a discussion held in New Delhi in a national seminar under the banner of Toxic link and world health organization where I was a guest speaker to speak about management of liquid waste management. I am glad to assure that in next part I shall present the discussed matters and my presentation which was accepted by all participants participating from all over the country and abroad. Central Pollution Control Board of India explained the amended rules and there in open forum discussion was held for opinion. One should not forget that in Philippines one man started the campaign against mass incineration which has spread all over the globe and gold man foundation has recognized it long back.